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Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

Agelos Papaioannou, George Rigas, Panagiotis Papastergiou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
  • Agelos Papaioannou
    Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological Education Institute of Thessaly, Greece |
  • George Rigas
    Department of Animal Production, Technological Education Institute of Thessaly, Greece
  • Panagiotis Papastergiou
    NHS Trust Microbiology Department, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, Lincoln County Hospital, United Kingdom
  • Christos Hadjichristodoulou
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Greece


Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety.
Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006) by chemometric methods.
Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean), group B (clean) and group C (contaminated). Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.


public health, chemometric methods, coastal bathing quality, bacterial indicators, Mediterranean

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Submitted: 2014-09-23 10:57:31
Published: 2014-12-10 12:20:25
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Copyright (c) 2014 Agelos Papaioannou, George Rigas, Panagiotis Papastergiou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou

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