The fight against stigma: Multilevel stigma interventions in schizophrenia patients

  • Adang Bachtiar Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Heni Dwi Windarwati | henipsik.fk@ub.ac.id Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8944-2515
  • Budi Anna Keliat Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Raden Irawati Ismail Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Niken Asih Laras Ati Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6006-2313
  • Ari Dwi Sulaksono Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jawa Timur , Indonesia.
  • Shofi Khaqul Ilmy Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0797-3863

Abstract

Background: Stigma is one of the main factors causing pasung (physical restraint or confinement in Indonesian terms) in schizophrenia patients. It is the main obstacle to reducing the number of pasung throughout the world. Thus, there is a need for appropriate interventions to reduce stigma in schizophrenia patients who go through pasung. This study aims to identify multilevel stigma interventions in people with schizophrenia who go through pasung (physical restraint and confinement). It can be applied and adapted to various cultural contexts. 
Design and Methods: Quasi-experimental research with pretest and post-test analysis consists of 82 people with schizophrenia who go through pasung. Respondents were divided into the intervention group and the control group. A multilevel stigma intervention was given to the intervention group for three months.
Results: There was a significant difference in the average stigma score in the control group (moderate category stigma) and the intervention group (mild category stigma) after multilevel stigma intervention (p-value = 0.04). The average stigma score of schizophrenia patients in the intervention group decreased by 8.2%, while the average stigma score in the control group increase of 20.4%.
Conclusions: Multilevel stigma interventions are effective in reducing stigma in people with schizophrenia who go through pasung. We underline that multilevel stigma interventions through collaboration from various parties can provide great opportunities in stigma reduction programs in people with schizophrenia who go through pasung.

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References

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Published
2020-12-07
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Section
Original Articles
Ethics Approval
This study was approved by the Health Research Ethics Commission of the Faculty of Nursing, University of Indonesia
Supporting Agencies
Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education
Keywords:
Stigma, multilevel stigma intervention, pasung, schizophrenia
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How to Cite
Bachtiar, A., Windarwati, H. D., Keliat, B. A., Ismail, R. I., Ati, N. A. L., Sulaksono, A. D., & Ilmy, S. K. (2020). The fight against stigma: Multilevel stigma interventions in schizophrenia patients. Journal of Public Health Research, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2020.1883