Inequities as a social determinant of health: Responsibility in paying attention to the poor and vulnerable at risk of COVID-19

  • Salah Eddin Karimi Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, Islamic Republic of. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1542-0214
  • Sina Ahmadi Department of Social Welfare Management, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of.
  • Neda Soleimanvandi Azar | nedasoleiman@yahoo.com Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Psychosocial Health Research Institute, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of.

Abstract

To the Editor

In December 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, a disease of viral origin was identified among people working in or around the seafood and animal market. Covid-19 is a causative agent of acute respiratory syndrome.  Almost 26-36% of patients need special care and about 4-15% of them die. Due to the lack of vaccines and effective treatment, the best way to prevent its spread is to quarantine patients and track their contact with other people in the community, trying to reduce mortality and protect the elderly, the vulnerable and special patients...

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7

The Lancet. COVID-19: learning from experience. Lancet 2020;395:1011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30686-3

Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020;323:1488-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3204

Patel J, Nielsen F, Badiani A, et al. Poverty, inequality and COVID-19: the forgotten vulnerable. Public Health 2020;183:110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.05.006

Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP. Measuring socio-economic inequalities in health. NIH Conference Measuring social inequalities in health, Annapolis, 1994.

Kim SJ, Bostwick W. Social vulnerability and racial inequality in COVID-19 deaths in Chicago. Health Educ Behav 2020;47:509-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198120929677

Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Glymour MM. Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press: Oxford; 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195377903.001.0001

WHO. A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. 2010. World Health Organization. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44489

Alcendor DJ. Racial disparities-associated COVID-19 mortality among minority populations in the US. J Clin Med 2020;9:2442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082442

Jahromi AH, jahromi A. Why African Americans are a potential target for COVID-19 infection in the United States. J Med Internet Res 2020;22:e19934. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/19934

Phillips N, Park I-W, Robinson JR, Jones HP. The perfect storm: COVID-19 health disparities in US Blacks. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00871-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00871-y

Shadmi E, Chen Y, Dourado I, Faran-Perach I, et al. Health equity and COVID-19: global perspectives. Int J Equity Health 2020;19:1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01218-z

SoleimanvandiAzar N, Kamal SHM, Sajjadi H, et al. Determinants of outpatient health service utilization according to Andersen’s Behavioral Model: A systematic scoping review. Iran J Med Sci 2020;45:405.

Gentilini U, Almenfi M, Orton I, Dale P. Social protection and jobs responses to COVID-19 : A real-time review of country measures. 2020. World Bank Group. Available from: https://socialprotection.org/discover/publications/social-protection-and-jobs-responses-covid-19-real-time-review-country

Gerard F, Imbert C, Orkin K. Social protection response to the COVID-19 crisis: options for developing countries. Oxford Rev Econ Policy 2020;36:S281-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/graa026

Alizadeh M, Abbasi M, Bashirivand N, et al. Nongovernmental organizations and social aspects of COVID-19 pandemic: A successful experience in health policy. Med J Islamic Republic Iran (MJIRI) 2020;34:1180-3.

Published
2021-02-02
Info
Issue
Section
Letters
Keywords:
Social determinant of health, COVID-19
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 178

  • PDF: 86
  • HTML: 0
How to Cite
Karimi, S. E., Ahmadi, S., & Azar, N. S. (2021). Inequities as a social determinant of health: Responsibility in paying attention to the poor and vulnerable at risk of COVID-19. Journal of Public Health Research, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.1904