Validation of Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) in health care setting in Greece

  • Aspasia Goula | Master of Health and Social Care Management, University of West Attica, Egaleo Attikis, Greece.
  • Maria-Aggeliki Stamouli Master of Health and Social Care Management, University of West Attica, Egaleo Attikis, Greece.
  • Dimitra Latsou Master of Health and Social Care Management, University of West Attica, Egaleo Attikis, Greece.
  • Vasiliki Gkioka Master of Health and Social Care Management, University of West Attica, Egaleo Attikis, Greece.
  • Markos Sarris Master of Health and Social Care Management, University of West Attica, Egaleo Attikis, Greece.


Background: In health care systems the organizational learning is a continuous process to improve actions through better knowledge and detect or correct errors. This study examines the validity and reliability of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire in addition to the applicability of the instrument in a Greek health care cultural context.
Design and methods: Α cross-sectional study was carried out in 6 general hospitals of Attica and the sampling scheme was the stratified sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to 487 healthcare professionals and 380 valid questionnaires were returned. The research tool used in this survey is the extensive form of DLOQ, which has been adapted and translated into Greek language. Data analysis was carried out with SPSS 25.
Results: Three leading experts of the health sector examined the face validity assessment of the translated DLOQ and stated that it is characterized by high face validity. As regard construct validity of the DOLQ throughout Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, was proved that all the variables of the same factors are statistically significantly correlated (p<0.001), and their correlation coefficients have moderate to high power ranging between 0.563 and 0.798. Moreover, the discriminant validity was demonstrated as certain correlation coefficients between variables of different factors were found to be higher than of certain correlation coefficients between variables of the same factors. The internal consistency among the items of the DOLQ range between 0.842 and 0.977 and they are considered to be good to excellent.
Conclusions: Our results confirmed that DLOQ is a valuable tool in measuring Learning Organizational in Greek public hospitals.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


1. Senge PM. The Fifth Discipline: the art and practice of the learning organisation. London: Random House; 1990.
2. Argyris C. On Organization Learning. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell; 1993.
3. Goula A. Health Care Units Organizational Culture. Athens: Papazisis; 2014.
4. Senge P. Communities of leader & learns. Harv Bus Rev 1997;75(5):30-31.
5. Sabeeh Z, Mustapha S, Roshayu M. Classifications, assessments and characteristics as factors towards analyzing organizational knowledge. J Theor Appl Inf Technol. 2017;95:6347-58.
6. Pedler M, Burgoyne J, Boydell T. A Manager's Guide to Leadership, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
7. Ratnapalan S, Uleryk E. (2014). Organizational learning in health care organizations. Systems 2014;2(1):24-33.
8. Mazmanian PE, Davis DA, Galbraith R. Continuing medical education effect on clinical outcomes: Effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines. Chest 2009;135:49S–55S.
9. Kelly DR, Lough M, Rushmer R, Wilkinson JE, Greig G, Davies HT. Delivering feedback on learning organization characteristics using a learning practice inventory. J Eval Clin Pract 2007;13(5):734–40.
10. Ugurluoglu O, Ugurluoglu Aldogan E, Dilmac E. The impact of managers' perceptions of learning organisations on innovation in healthcare: sample of Turkey. Int J Health Plann Manage 2013;28(2):158–68.
11. Garvin DA, Edmondson AC, Gino F. Is yours a learning organisation? Harvard Business Review, March 2008. Available from:
12. Schilling L, Dearing JW, Staley P, Harvey P, Fahey L, Kuruppu F. Kaiser permanente's performance improvement system, Part 4: Creating a learning organisation. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2011;37(12):532-43.
13. Cantle F. What is a ‘learning organisation’ in general practice? A case study. Health Serv Manage Res. 2000;13(3):152–5.
14. O'Connor N, Kotze B. ‘Learning Organisations’: a clinician's primer. Australas Psychiatry. 2008;16(3):173–8.
15. Marsick VJ, Watkins KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization’s learning culture. Adv Dev Hum Resour 2003;5(2):132-51.
16. Watkins K, Dirani K. A Meta-analysis of the dimensions of a learning organization questionnaire: Looking across cultures, ranks, and industries. Adv Dev Hum Resour 2013;15(2):148-62.
17. Yang B, Watkins K, Marsick V. The construct of the learning organization: dimensions measurement and validation. Hum Resour Dev Q 2004;15(1):31-55
18. Ellinger AD, Ellinger AE, Yang B, Howton SW. The relationship between the learning organization concept and firms’ financial performance: An empirical assessment. Hum Resour Dev Q 2002;13(1):5-21.
19. Lien BY, Hung RY, Yang B, Li M. Is the learning organization a valid concept in the Taiwanese context? Int J Manpow 2006;27(2):189-203.
20. Zhang D, Zhang Z, Yang B. Learning organization in mainland China: Empirical research on its application to Chinese state-owned enterprises. Int J Train Dev 2004;8(4): 258-73.
21. Song, JH, Joo BK, Chermack TJ. The dimensions of learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ): a validation study in South Korean context. Hum Resour Dev Q. 2009;20(1):43-64.
22. Kortsch T, Kauffeld S. (2019). Validation of a German version of the dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ) in German craft companies. Zeitschrift für Arbeits-und Organisationspsychologie A&O 2019;63:15-31.
23. Gheorghe CM, Purcărea VL, Gheorghe IR, Popa-Velea O. (2018). Investigating the dimensions of learning organizations questionnaire (DLOQ) in a Romanian private ophthalmology organization. Rom J Ophthalmol 2018;62(4): 288-95.
24. Dekoulou P, Trivellas P. Learning organization in Greek advertising and media industry: A way to face crisis and gain sustainable competitive advantage. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2015;175:367-375.
25. Poulimenou S. The Greek public school as a learning organization and the role of teachers' critical thinking: Reality or utopia?. (Master’s Thesis). 2019. Available from
26. Harkness, JA, Van de Vijver, F, Mohler PP. Cross cultural survey methods. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley; 2003.
27. Presser S, Rothgeb JM, Couper MP, Lessler JT, Martin E, Singer E. Methods for testing and evaluating survey questionnaires. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Interscience; 2004.
28. Hardesty M, Bearden D. The use of expert judges in scale development Implications for improving face validity of measures of unobservable constructs, J Bus Res 2004;57(2):98-107.
29. Apostolakis I, Stamouli MA, Validity and reliability assessment of quantitative research questionnaires in health units: The case of a questionnaire concerning the evaluation of a nursing services management information system of a hospital, Statistical Review 2006;2(1):3-25.
30. Chin CL, Yao G. Convergent validity. In: Michalos AC. (eds) Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer; 2014
31. Shen F. Multitrait‐multimethod matrix. in Matthes J, Davis CS, Potter RF. (eds), The international encyclopedia of communication research methods. vol. II. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell; 2017.
32. Cronbach, LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951;16(3):297–334.
33. Cortina JM. What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. J Αppl psychol. 1993;78:98-104.
34. Goula A, Latsou D, Νatsis C, Sarris M, Soulis S, Pierrakos G. Development and validation of a patient satisfaction questionnaire for use in primary health care, Arch Hel Med 2019;36(1):88–95.
35. Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, New Jersey:Erlbaum;1998.
36. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall; 2006.
37. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press; 2005.
38. Gregory RJ. Psychology testing: history, principles, and applications (5th ed.). Boston: Ally & Bacon; 2007.
39. Hubley AM. Discriminant validity. In: Michalos AC. (eds) Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer; 2014.
40. Campell D, Fiske D. Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychol Bull 1959;56(2):81-105.
Original Articles
Supporting Agencies
This study has been done within the framework of the Postgraduate Health and Social Care Management Programme of the University of West Attica.
Organizational learning, public hospitals, validation, health
  • Abstract views: 135

  • PDF: 199
  • HTML: 0
How to Cite
Goula, A., Stamouli, M.-A., Latsou, D., Gkioka, V., & Sarris, M. (2020). Validation of Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) in health care setting in Greece. Journal of Public Health Research, 9(4).