The needs of traumatic brain injury survivors' caregivers and the implication required during the COVID-19 pandemic: Public health issues
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors require attention and dependence from their primary caregiver. This is because TBI is a defect that affects both the psychological and physical functions of the victim. Caregivers play an essential role in providing the adequate care victims need to adjust to the new problems they may experience due to their condition, as family members alone may not be able to provide for their needs. In particular, TBI caregivers may face specific challenges when assisting their patients in handling unexpected changes to their daily routines. Therefore, this quantitative study aims to explore the needs of caregivers, their coping mechanisms towards stressful and traumatic circumstances, and how they provide care to their loved ones during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design and Methods: It was conducted with ten caregivers of individuals suffering from traumatic brain injury, that were selected using a theoretical sampling method. Data were obtained using a semi-structured interview guide, which helped the caregivers provide their responses. Meanwhile, data analysis was performed using the NVIVO analysis software.
Results: The results showed that there were, three significant themes namely, (a) Support needed, (b) the information need for care, and (c) developing self-resilience. The results also showed that caregivers really need support from the various parties, and the participants lack information on specific care techniques for the severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors.
Conclusion: In conclusion, caregivers require approval and seek more useful information to provide excellent care to their loved ones. Being aware of the caregiver's needs would enable them to offer improved customized care.
Savicki LE. Collaborative referencing in traumatic brain injury. Thesis Degree, University of Iowa; 2012.
Kynoch K, Chang A, Coyer F. Evidence to practice gap : difficulties in implementing evidence-based recommendations to meet family needs in an adult intensive care unit. JBI Evid Implemen 2012;10:272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01258363-201209000-00104
Minnes P, Woodford L, Carlson P, et al. The needs of aging parents caring for an adult with acquired brain injury. Can J Aging 2010;29:185–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980810000103
Rodakowski J, Skidmore ER, Rogers JC, et al. Role of social support in predicting caregiver burden. Archi Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:229-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.004
Liu W, Zhu J, Liu J, et al. Psychological state and needs of family member caregivers for victims of traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Int J Nursing Sci 2015;2:231-6.
Norup A, Perrin PB, Cuberos-Urbano G, et al. Family needs after brain injury: A cross cultural study. Neuro Rehabil 2015;36:203-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-151208
O’Callaghan AM, McAllister L, Wilson L. Experiences of care: Perspectives of carers of adults with traumatic brain injury. Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2011;13:218-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2011.549240
Mbakile-Mahlanza L, Manderson L, Downing M, et al. Family caregiving of individuals with traumatic brain injury in Botswana. Disabil Rehabil 2017;39:559-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2016.1152605
Dillahunt-aspillaga C, Jorgensen-smith T, Ehlke S, et al. Traumatic brain injury: Unmet support needs of caregivers and families in Florida. PloS One 2013;8:1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082896
Vangel SJJ, Rapport LJ, Hanks RA. Effects of family and caregiver psychosocial functioning on outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2011;26:20–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0b013e318204a70d
Barclay DA. Family functioning, psychosocial stress, and goal attainment in brain injury rehabilitation. J Soc Work Disabil Rehabil 2013;12:159-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1536710X.2013.810093
Soury-Lavergne A, Hauchard I, Dray S, et al. Survey of caregiver opinions on the practicalities of family-centred care in intensive care units. J Clin Nurs 2012;21:1060–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03866.x
Arango-Lasprilla JC, Quijano MC, Aponte M, et al. Family needs in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury from Colombia, South America. Brain Inj 2010;24:1017-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2010.490516
Chronister J, Chan F, Sasson-Gelman EJ, et al. The association of stress-coping variables to quality of life among caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neuro Rehabil 2010;27:49-62.
Norup A, Welling KL, Qvist J, et al. Depression, anxiety and quality-of-life among relatives of patients with severe brain injury: the acute phase. Brain Injury 2012;26:1192–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2012.672790
Bayen E, Pradat-Diehl P, Jourdan C, et al. Predictors of informal care burden 1 year after a severe traumatic brain injury: results from the Paris-TBI study. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2013;28:408–418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0b013e31825413cf
Liu W, Zhu J, Liu J, et al. Psychological state and needs of family member caregivers for victims of traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Int J Nurs Sci 2015;2:231-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2015.07.001
So S. Transition as experienced by close relatives of people with traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci Nurs 2011;43:253-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/JNN.0b013e318227ef9b
Webster J, Taylor A, Balchin R. Traumatic brain injury, the hidden pandemic: A focused response to family and patient experiences and needs. South Afr Med J 2015;105:195-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.9014
Boycott N, Yeoman P, Vesey P. Factors associated with strain in carers of people with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2013;28:106-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0b013e31823fe07e
Chronister J, Chan F, Sasson-Gelman E, et al. The association of stress-coping variables to quality of life among caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neuro Rehabil 2010;27:49–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-2010-0580
Hassan S, Khaw W, Rosna A, et al. Traumatic brain injury: caregivers’ problems and needs. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2011;50:53-5.
Anderson MI, Daher M, Simpson GK. A predictive model of resilience among family caregivers supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury (TBI): A structural equation modelling approach. Neuropsychol Rehabil 2020;30:1925-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2019.1620787
Simpson G, Jones K. How important is resilience among family members supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury? Clin Rehabil 2012;27:367–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215512457961
Las Hayas C, López de Arroyabe E, Calvete E. Resilience in family caregivers of persons with acquired brain injury. Rehabil Psychol 2015;60:295-302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/rep0000040
- Abstract views: 158
- PDF: 54
Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.