Body mass index, physical activity, and physical fitness of adolescence

  • Ratna Candra Dewi | ratnadewi@unesa.ac.id Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0612-244X
  • Nanda Rimawati Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Purbodjati Purbodjati Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Abstract

Background: Adolescents experience growth and significant changes in body composition which influence physical activity and response to sport or exercise. The level of physical fitness in adolescent girls is usually lower than that of boys, due to differences in body composition and levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fat mass percentage, body composition, physical activity, and physical fitness.
Design and Methods: This study used an analytical observational, and cross-sectional design with total samples consisting of 70 male and female students aged 14-15 years. They were selected through simple random sampling, and the data collected were anthropometric measurements, body composition, physical activity and physical fitness. In addition, the Pearson correlation test was used for data analysis.
Results: The results showed that 68.57% of participants had a normal body mass index, 74.3% had moderate physical activity, and 44.28% had fat mass percentage including an obesity category and, 54.29% had low physical fitness. Furthermore, the Pearson test showed a significant relationship between physical activity, body mass index and fat mass percentage with physical fitness.
Conclusions: An increased fat mass percentage is associated with decreased levels of physical fitness. Furthermore, a good determinant of low physical fitness in obese conditions is the percentage of fat mass rather than BMI.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Patton GC, Viner R. Pubertal transitions in health. Lancet 2007;369:1130–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60366-3

Bélanger M, Sabiston CM, Barnett TA, et al. Number of years of participation in some, but not all, types of physical activity during adolescence predicts level of physical activity in adulthood: Results from a 13-year study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015;12:1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0237-x

Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, et al. Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1·6 million participants. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal 2020;4:23–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2

Konstabel K, Veidebaum T, Verbestel V, et al. Objectively measured physical activity in European children: The IDEFICS study. Int J Obes 2014;38:S135-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.144

Li J, Siegrist J. Physical activity and risk of cardiovascular disease--a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012;9:391-407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9020391

Beals KA, Manore MM. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002;12:281-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.12.3.281

Júdice PB, Silva AM, Berria J, et al. Sedentary patterns, physical activity and health-related physical fitness in youth: A cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2017;14:7-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0481-3

Coyle YM. Lifestyle, genes, and cancer. Methods Mol Biol 2009;472:25-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_2

Douglas KA, Collins JL, Warren C, et al. Results from the 1995 national college health risk behavior survey. J Am Coll Health Assoc 1997;46:55–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07448489709595589

Ajrullah A, Nagar R, Nunn J, et al. The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on lipid profile in adults with Metabolic syndrome – a systematic review and meta‐analyses. J Human Nutr Dietetics 2017;30:s35-9.

Genton L, Melzer K, Pichard C. Energy and macronutrient requirements for physical fitness in exercising subjects. Clin Nutr 2010;29:413–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2010.02.002

Cheng HL, Amatoury M, Steinbeck K. Energy expenditure and intake during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:1061-74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.129205

Graves L, Stratton G, Ridgers ND, et al. Energy expenditure in adolescents playing new generation computer games. Br J Sports Med 2008;42:592-94.

Zalilah MS, Khor GL, Mirnalini K, et al. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents. Singapore Med J 2006;47:491.

Marandi SM, Abadi NG, Esfarjani F, et al. Effects of intensity of aerobics on body composition and blood lipid profile in obese/overweight females. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:S118-25.

Keating SE, Machan EA, O’Connor HT, et al. Continuous exercise but not high intensity interval training improves fat distribution in overweight adults. J Obes 2014;2014:834865. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/834865

Swift DL, Johannsen NM, Lavie CJ, et al. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2014;56:441-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.012

Shete AN, Bute SS, Deshmukh PR. A study of VO2 max and body fat percentage in female athletes. J Clin Diagnostic Res 2014;8:BC01–3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/10896.5329

Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. CMAJ 2006;174:801-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351

Kumar B, Robinson R, Till S. Physical activity and health in adolescence. Clin Med (Lond) 2015;15:267-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.15-3-267

Mak K-K, Ho S-Y, Lo W-S, et al. Health-related physical fitness and weight status in Hong Kong adolescents. BMC Public Health 2010;10:1–5.

Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Schwerdtman JA, et al. Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. J Athl Train 2006;41:357–63.

Committee on Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Pate R, et al. Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2012. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK241316/

Chung S. Body mass index and body composition scaling to height in children and adolescent. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2015;2:125-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6065/apem.2015.20.3.125

Nuttall FQ. Body mass index: Obesity, BMI, and health: A critical review. Nutr Today 2015;50:117-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000092

Published
2021-04-14
Supporting Agencies
This study was financially supported by the Faculty of Sport Medicine, Universitas Negeri Surabaya
Keywords:
Body mass index, fat mass percentage, physical activity, physical fitness
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 110

  • PDF: 44
How to Cite
Dewi, R. C., Rimawati, N., & Purbodjati, P. (2021). Body mass index, physical activity, and physical fitness of adolescence. Journal of Public Health Research, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2230