Is instant porridge with a high calcium content based on Moringa oleifera as an alternative baby food to prevent stunting in Indonesia?

  • Septa Katmawanti | Departement of Public Health, Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia.
  • Supriyadi Supriyadi Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang , Indonesia.
  • Fariha Mariroh Departement of Public Health, Public Health Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jember, Jember, Indonesia.


Background: According to WHO, stunting is a state of height-for-age index below minus two standard deviation. However, the condition could be prevented by giving suitable complementary food to babies and toddlers. Moringa leaves are rich in vitamins A, C, B6, as well as calcium, potassium, iron, as well as protein, and are therefore used as complementary foods for breast milk, in baby feeding.
Design and Methods: Instant porridge was developed using three formulas. Each formula comprised Moringa leaf flour (5, 6 and 7 grams each) combined with 30 grams of oatmeal powder, 40 grams of powdered formula, 10grams of refined sugar, and 5 grams of banana flour.
Results: Based on the organoleptic test, Formula 3 (created with 5 grams of Moringa leaf flour) was discovered to be the best. The organoleptic evaluation panel consisted of 3 trained and 30 untrained participants, while the statistical results showed the parameters of colour, texture, and taste, have no significant effect on panellists’ acceptance.
Conclusions: The flavour parameter has a significant effect on panellists’ acceptance, with a p-value <0.05.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Susanto H, Hernowati TE, Indra MR. Efficacy of moringaoleifera leaf powder as nutrigenomic therapy: A preliminary study of madura islands variety. Nephrourol Mon 2014;6:e17945.

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. [Pedoman Metode Melengkapi Nilai Gizi Bahan Makanan Pada Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia (Method guidelines for complementing the nutritional value of food ingredients in the Indonesian food composition table)].[Book in Indonesian]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia; 2017.

Sedgh G, Guillermo Herrera M, Nestel P, et al. Dietary vitamin A intake and nondietary factors are associated with reversal of stunting in children. J Nutr 2000;130:2520–6. DOI:

Fahey J. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Trees Life J 2005;1:5.

Hsu HW, Vavak DL, Satterlee LD. et al. A Multienzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility. J Food Sci 2006;42:1269–73. DOI:

Ma Z, Ahmad J, Zhang H, et al. Evaluation of phytochemical and medicinal properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) as a potential functional food. South African J Bot 2020;129:40-6. DOI:

Kasolo JN, Bimenya GS, Ojok L, et al. Toxicity evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous and ethanol extracts in Swiss Albino rats. Int J Med Plant Res 2012;1:75–81.

Tirhas MG, Geremew B, Sirawdink FF, et al. Nutritional quality and acceptability of sweet potato–soybean–moringa composite porridge, nutrition and food science. Nutr Food Sci 2015;45:845–58. DOI:

Winarno. [Tanaman Kelor (Moringa oleifera) Nilai Gizi, Manfaat, dan Potensi Usaha (Moringa oleifera nutritional value, benefits, and business potential)].[Book in Indonesian]. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2018.

Putra AIYD, Setiawan NBW, Sanjiwani MID, et al. Nutrigenomic and biomolecular aspect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as supplementation for stunting children. J Trop Biodivers Biotechnol 2021;6:60113. DOI:

Mushaphi LF, Motadi SA, Mbhatsani HV, et al. Pregnant women’s dietary practices in relation to anthropometric status of infants aged 0-6 weeks in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province Mushaphi. J Nutr Food Sci 2015;5:6.

Borg WR, Gall M. Educational Research: An Introduction, Fifth Edition. London: CRC Press Taylor dan Francis Group; 1983.

Agunbiade OJ, Famutimi OG, Kadiri FA, et al. Studies on peroxidase from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. Heliyon 2021;7:e06032. DOI:

Shiriki D, Igyor MA, Gernah DI. Nutritional Evaluation of complementary food formulations from maize, soybean and peanut fortified with Moringa oleifera leaf powder. Food Nutr Sci 2015;6:494–500.

Yustiyani Y, Setiawan B. [Formulasi Bubur Instan Menggunakan Komposit Tepung Kacang Merah Dan Pati Ganyong Sebagai Makanan Sapihan (Instant porridge formulation using red bean flour composite and canna starch as weaning food)].[Article in Indonesian]. J Gizi dan Pangan 2014;8:95. DOI:

Winarno. [Kimia Pangan dan Gizi (Food chemistry and nutrition)].[Book in Indonesian]. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2004.

Hardinsyah, Riyadi H, Napitupulu V. [Kecukupan energi, protein, lemak dan karbohidrat (Adequacy of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates)].[In Indonesian]. Bogor: Community Nutrition, FEMA IPB and the Department of Nutrition, FK UI, Bogor and Jakarta; 2012.

Farooq F, Rai M, Tiwari A, et al. Moringa oleifera as an alternative fodder for dairy cows in Nicaragua. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4368–74.

Gupta S, Jain R, Kachhwaha S KS. Nutritional and medicinal applications of Moringa oleifera Lam.—Review of current status and future possibilities. J Herb Med 2018;11:1–11. DOI:

Netshiheni KR, Mashau M, Jideani AI. Nutritional and sensory properties of instant maize porridge fortified with Moringa oleifera leaves and termite (Macrotermes falciger) powders. Nutr Food Sci 2019;49:654–67. DOI:

Khatun S, Ashraduzzaman, Karim R, et al. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from moringa oleifera l. leaves. BioResources 2012;7:3237–51.

Fatima T, Sajid MS, Jawad-ul-Hassan M, et al. Phytomedicinal value of Moringa oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics. Pakistan J Agric Sci 2014;51:251–62.

Popoola OJ, Obembe O. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria. Encycl Toxicol 2013;150:682–91.

Leone A, Spada A, Battezzati A, et al. Cultivation, genetic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Moringa oleifera leaves: An overview. Int J Mol Sci 2015;16:12791–835. DOI:

Moyo B, Masika PJ, Hugo A, et al. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. African J Biotechnol 2011;10:12925–33.

Onyekwelu O, Ekechi A. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antioxidant properties of Moringa Oleifera ethanolic leaves extract and effect on serum lipid indices in rat. Maced J Med Sci 2012;5:397–403.

Goyal BR, Agrawal BB, Goyal RK, et al. Phyto-pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam. - An overview. Nat Prod Radiance 2007;6:347–53.

Ferreira PPM, Farias DF, Oliveira JTDA, et al. Moringa oleifera : bioactive compounds and nutritional potential Moringa oleifera : compostos bioativos e potencialidade nutricional. Rev Nutr 2008;21:431–7. DOI:

Ethics Approval
This study has been approved by Health Research Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medicine with ID research, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia (ID 104/EC/KEPK-S1/03/2019)
Instant porridge, moringa leaf flour, stunting
  • Abstract views: 123

  • PDF: 54
How to Cite
Katmawanti, S., Supriyadi, S., & Mariroh, F. (2021). Is instant porridge with a high calcium content based on <em>Moringa oleifera</em&gt; as an alternative baby food to prevent stunting in Indonesia?. Journal of Public Health Research, 10(2).