Substitution of local Indonesian varieties of brown rice on anthropometry and blood glucose level improvement in type 2 DM patients: a pilot project
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder whose prevalence increases globally. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is one of the DM management pillars to control blood glucose. Local Indonesian brown rice is proven to contain high fiber and magnesium levels thus could improve obesity, fasting blood glucose, and HbA1c This study aims to prove the benefits of brown rice on anthropometric parameters and blood glucose control.
Design and methods: Respondents were overweight women older than 40 years with type 2 diabetes who were given three main meals and three snacks six days a week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric and blood glucose control data were collected before and after the intervention. Diet and intake data before the intervention were obtained through a semi quantitate food frequency questionnaire. Intake data during the intervention were recorded using the 24-hour food record and analyzed using modified NutriSurvey 2007 software.
Results: Brown rice intervention significantly reduced body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and abdominal circumference (P <0.05), also in fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and HbA1c (P <0.05). From the Pearson's test results, an increase in fiber intake correlated with a decrease in BMI and abdominal circumference (P = 0.03; r = -0.511 and P = 0.006; r = -0.619, respectively). Meanwhile, magnesium intake and changes in BMI showed a negative correlation.
Conclusions: The substitution of brown rice as a staple food for 12 weeks improves anthropometric parameters and blood glucose control in respondents with type 2 diabetes.
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