Substitution of local Indonesian varieties of brown rice on anthropometry and blood glucose level improvement in type 2 DM patients: a pilot project


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder whose prevalence increases globally. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is one of the DM management pillars to control blood glucose. Local Indonesian brown rice is proven to contain high fiber and magnesium levels thus could improve obesity, fasting blood glucose, and HbA1c This study aims to prove the benefits of brown rice on anthropometric parameters and blood glucose control.
Design and methods: Respondents were overweight women older than 40 years with type 2 diabetes who were given three main meals and three snacks six days a week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric and blood glucose control data were collected before and after the intervention. Diet and intake data before the intervention were obtained through a semi quantitate food frequency questionnaire. Intake data during the intervention were recorded using the 24-hour food record and analyzed using modified NutriSurvey 2007 software.
Results: Brown rice intervention significantly reduced body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and abdominal circumference (P <0.05), also in fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and HbA1c (P <0.05). From the Pearson's test results, an increase in fiber intake correlated with a decrease in BMI and abdominal circumference (P = 0.03; r = -0.511 and P = 0.006; r = -0.619, respectively). Meanwhile, magnesium intake and changes in BMI showed a negative correlation.
Conclusions: The substitution of brown rice as a staple food for 12 weeks improves anthropometric parameters and blood glucose control in respondents with type 2 diabetes.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Aguirre F, Brown A, Cho NH, et al. Diabetes Atlas, 6th Edition. International Diabetes Federation; 2013.

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. [Hasil Utama Riskesdas 2018 (Main Results of basic health research 2018)].[in Indonesian]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia; 2018.

Schaffer-Lequart C, Lehmann U, Ross AB, et al. Whole grain in manufactured foods: current use, challenges and the way forward. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017;57:1562–8. DOI:

Statistics Indonesia (BPS). [Rata-rata konsumsi per kapita 2007-2015 (Average consumption per capita2007-2015)].[in Indonesian]. 2015. Accessed: 2021 Mar 22. Available from:

Sulistyowati E, Handayani D, Soeharto S, Rudijanto A. Serum mineral (Mg, Mn, and K) levels are associated with increasing the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference. Obes Med 2019;15:100107. DOI:

Sulistyowati E, Rudijanto A, Soeharto S, Handayani D. The identification of characteristic macro-and micronutrients and the bioactive components of Indonesian local brown rice as a functional feed in obesity nutrition therapy. Curr Nutr Food Sci 2020;16:494–500. DOI:

Sun Q, Spiegelman D, van Dam RM, et al. White rice, brown rice, and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:961–9. DOI:

Yang S-O, Wu C, So M-Y, et al. Effects of brown rice on cellular growth and metabolic changes in mice. Food Res Int. 2016;84:33–40. DOI:

Hsu T-F, Kise M, Wang M-F, et al. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008;54:163–8. DOI:

Bui TN, Le TH, Nguyen DH, et al. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2014;60:183–7. DOI:

Sherwani SI, Khan HA, Ekhzaimy A, et al. Significance of HbA1c test in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic patients. Biomark Insights 2016;11:95–104. DOI:

Dhand NK, Khatkar MS. Statulator: An online statistical calculator. Sample Size Calculator for Comparing Two Paired Means. 2014. Accessed: 2021 May 28. Available from:

Erhardt J. Nutrisurvey for Windows. SEAMEO-TROPMED-RCCN- University of Indonesia; 2007. Available from:

Nakayama T, Nagai Y, Uehara Y, et al. Eating glutinous brown rice twice a day for 8 weeks improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with diabetes mellitus. Nutr Diabetes 2017;7:e273. DOI:

Malik VS, Sudha V, Wedick NM, et al. Substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2019;121:1389–97. DOI:

Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CEL, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 2013;36:4166–71. DOI:

Shimabukuro M, Higa M, Kinjo R, et al. Effects of the brown rice diet on visceral obesity and endothelial function: the BRAVO study. Br J Nutr 2014;111:310–20. DOI:

Fardet A. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutr Res Rev 2010;23:65–134. DOI:

Kostov K. Effects of magnesium deficiency on mechanisms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: focusing on the processes of insulin secretion and signaling. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20:1351. DOI:

Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non‐diabetic subjects–a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomized trial. Diabetes, Obes Metab 2011;13:281–4. DOI:

Castellanos-Gutiérrez A, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Carriquiry A, et al. Higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and serum glucose in Mexican adults. Nutr J 2018;17:1–8. DOI:

Original Articles
anthropometric, blood glucose, HbA1c, Indonesian variety of Brown rice, type 2 DM
  • Abstract views: 133

  • PDF: 111
How to Cite
Handayani, D., Kusumastuty, I., Innayah, A. M., Retnaningtyas, E., Sulistyowati , E., Sasiarini, L., & Rudijanto, A. (2021). Substitution of local Indonesian varieties of brown rice on anthropometry and blood glucose level improvement in type 2 DM patients: a pilot project. Journal of Public Health Research.

Most read articles by the same author(s)