A pre/post analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychosocial work environment and recovery among healthcare workers in a large university hospital in Sweden
Background. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on workload, mental health, and well-being of healthcare workers, and particularly those on the front-line, has received considerable attention.
Design and methods. We surveyed hospital employees about their working environment during the pandemic and identified departments which were negatively affected in comparison to the pre-pandemic situation, as well as factors contributing to this.
Setting and participants We surveyed all hospital employees at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden in September 2020 and compared results across departments and to the results of a large employee survey from October 2019.
Results. The overall impact of the pandemic on perceived working conditions and possibility for recovery differed among departments. During the pandemic, healthcare workers working with COVID-19 patients reported poorer working environments than other employees. Factors significantly related to perception of work environment and recovery during the pandemic included worries of being infected, departmental transfer, and having insufficient access to personal protective equipment. Men reported better working conditions than women in all, but one item and higher age was related to better perceived working environment.
Conclusions. Our results indicate that the pandemic differentially affects hospital departments and underscores the multifactorial nature of this topic. Contributing factors to poor perceived working environment could be addressed at times of high workload, such as during the pandemic, including providing appropriate support to managers, ensuring possibility for recovery during working hours, and acknowledging worries about infection. Young healthcare workers and staff who are relocated due to the pandemic warrant special attention.
Liu C-Y, Yang Y-z, Zhang X-M, et al. The prevalence and influencing factors in anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiol Infect 2020;148:e98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001107
Cipolotti L, Chan E, Murphy P, et al. Factors contributing to the distress, concerns, and needs of UK Neuroscience health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychol Psychother 2020;94:536-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12298
Firew T, Sano ED, Lee JW, et al. Protecting the front line: a cross-sectional survey analysis of the occupational factors contributing to healthcare workers’ infection and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. BMJ Open 2020;10:e042752. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042752
Rossi R, Socci V, Pacitti F, et al. Mental health outcomes among frontline and second-line health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Italy. JAMA Network Open 2020;3:e2010185-e. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10185
Evanoff BA, Strickland JR, Dale AM, et al. Work-related and personal factors associated with mental well-being during the COVID-19 response: Survey of health care and other workers. J Med Internet Res 2020;22:e21366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/21366
Brand SL, Thompson Coon J, Fleming LE, et al. Whole-system approaches to improving the health and wellbeing of healthcare workers: A systematic review. PLoS One 2017;12:e0188418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188418
Spiller TR, Méan M, Ernst J, et al. Development of health care workers' mental health during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Switzerland: two cross-sectional studies. Psychol Med 2020:1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720003128
Felice C, Di Tanna GL, Zanus G, Grossi U. Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on healthcare workers in Italy: Results from a national e-survey. J Community Health 2020;45:675-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00845-5
Kramer V, Papazova I, Thoma A, et al. Subjective burden and perspectives of German healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021;271:271–81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01183-2
Shoja E, Aghamohammadi V, Bazyar H, et al. Covid-19 effects on the workload of Iranian healthcare workers. BMC Public Health 2020;20:1636. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09743-w
Baker WE. Emotional energy, relational energy, and organizational energy: Toward a multilevel model. Annu Rev Organ Psychol Organ Behav 2019;6:373-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015047
Ejlertsson L, Heijbel B, Brorsson A, Andersson HI. Is it possible to gain energy at work? A questionnaire study in primary health care. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2020;21:e65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1463423620000614
Vanhaecht K, Seys D, Bruyneel L, et al. COVID-19 is having a destructive impact on health-care workers’ mental well-being. Int J Qual Health Care 2020;33:mzaa158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzaa158
Linda C, Lisa B. Job demands and job resources in human service managerial work an external assessment throughwork content analysis. Nord J Work Life Stud 2016;6:3-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19154/njwls.v6i4.5610
Holm-Petersen C, Østergaard S, Andersen Per Bo N. Size does matter – span of control in hospitals. J Health Organ Manag 2017;31:192-206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-04-2016-0073
Meyer RM, O'Brien-Pallas L, Doran D, et al. Front-line managers as boundary spanners: effects of span and time on nurse supervision satisfaction. J Nurs Manag 2011;19:611-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01260.x
Andreasson J, Ahlstrom L, Eriksson ALD. The importance of healthcare managers’ organizational preconditions and support resources for their appraisal of planned change and its outcomes. J Hosp Adm 2017;6:25-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/jha.v6n1p25
Berntson E, Wallin L, Härenstam A. Typical situations for managers in the Swedish public sector: Cluster analysis of working conditions using the job demands-resources model. Int Public Manag J 2012;15:100-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2012.684026
Adams JG, Walls RM. Supporting the health care workforce during the COVID-19 global epidemic. JAMA 2020;323:1439-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3972
Dehnavieh R, Kalavani K. Management-supportive measures for managers of healthcare organizations during the COVID-19 epidemic. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2020;41:878. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.108
Tam CWC, Pang EPF, Lam LCW, Chiu HFK. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact among frontline healthcare workers. Psychol Med 2004;34:1197-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704002247
De Brier N, Stroobants S, Vandekerckhove P, De Buck E. Factors affecting mental health of health care workers during coronavirus disease outbreaks (SARS, MERS & COVID-19): A rapid systematic review. PLoS One 2020;15:e0244052. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244052
Nilsen P, Seing I, Ericsson C, et al. Characteristics of successful changes in health care organizations: an interview study with physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses. BMC Health Serv Res 2020;20:147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-4999-8
Dai Y, Hu G, Xiong H, et al. Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China. medRxiv 2020:2020.03.03.20030874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.03.20030874
Nabe-Nielsen K, Nilsson CJ, Juul-Madsen M, et al. COVID-19 risk management at the workplace, fear of infection and fear of transmission of infection among frontline employees. Occup Environ Med 2021;78:248-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106831
Menon V, Kumar Padhy S. Ethical dilemmas faced by health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic: Issues, implications and suggestions. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;51:102116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102116
Cai W, Lian B, Song X, et al. A cross-sectional study on mental health among health care workers during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;51:102111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102111
- Abstract views: 601
- PDF: 161
Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.