Appraisal survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Jordanian society toward diet and nutrition during COVID-19 era

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of the Jordanian society toward nutrition and diet during the COVID-19 era.
Design and methods: This study is an observational, cross-sectional study using a structured, validated, reproducible, self-administered online Arabic questionnaire. KAB of the study participants was assessed via a web-based, structured, validated, reproducible Arabic questionnaire. The tool for the assessment of the KAB was composed of 33-closed-ended multi-answer questions.
Results: A total of 672 people were surveyed, 70.2% were between 18 and 34, and 69.5% were females. Participants have paid little attention to the healthfulness of their diet in the last year. The majority of participant’s attitudes towards using different approaches to manage weight in the next year were: eating smaller portions for weight management, tracking to maximize the amount of time of physical activity, and substituting lower-calorie foods for full-calorie alternatives. Only tenth of participants utilize the time to perform physical activity. The majority made changes to their diet and exercise, and strictly follow commitment in connection with planning for the following year.
Conclusions: Educators, legislative, food manufacturers, household heads, and policymakers are called upon to improve Jordanians’ KAB on nutrition and diet. Furthermore, Jordanian nutrition and diet behavior can be invested to improve the dietary interventions designed by nutrition and dietetics professionals.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Contento IR. Foundation in theory and research: Increasing awareness and enhancing motivation. In: IR Contento, MS Rose, editors. Nutrition Education: Linking Research, Theory, and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2016. p. 96–134.

Medical Research Council, National Institute of Health Research. Review of Nutrition and Human Health Research. 2017. Available from: https://mrc.ukri.org/documents/pdf/review-of-nutrition-and-human-health/

Al Hourani H. Food and Nutrition Profile: the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. 2011. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/aq039e/aq039e.pdf

World Health Organization. NLiS Country Profile: Jordan. Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLiS). 202. Accessed: 2020 Aug 5. Available from: https://apps.who.int/nutrition/landscape/report.aspx?iso=jor

World Health Organization. Wuhan 2019 Novel Coronavirus - 2019-nCoV. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=20a99c10_4

World Health Organization. Considerations for quarantine of contacts of COVID-19 cases. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/considerations-for-quarantine-of-individuals-in-the-context-of-containment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)

Al-Tammemi AB. The battle against COVID-19 in Jordan: An early overview of the Jordanian experience. Front Public Health 2020;8:1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00188

International Food Information Council. Food & Health Survey 2020. Available from: https://foodinsight.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/IFIC-Food-and-Health-Survey-2020.pdf

Elsahoryi N, Al-Sayyed H, Odeh M, et al. Effect of Covid-19 on food security: A cross-sectional survey. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2020;40:171–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.09.026

Ismail LC, Osaili TM, Mohamad MN, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the united arab emirates: A cross-sectional study. Nutrients 2020;12:1–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113314

Worsly T. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption: can nutrition knowledge change food behaviour? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:S579–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.11.supp3.7.x

Weerasekara PC, Withanachchi CR, Ginigaddara GAS, Ploeger A. Food and nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among reproductive-age women in marginalized areas in Sri Lanka. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:1–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113985

Aikman SN, Min KE, Graham D. Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes. Appetite 2006;47:111–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2006.02.004

Spronk I, Kullen C, Burdon C, O’Connor H. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Br J Nutr 2014;111:1713–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514000087

SPRING, USAID [Internet]. The KAP Survey Model (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) 2011. Accessed: 2020 Nov 20. Available from: https://www.spring-nutrition.org/publications/tool-summaries/kap-survey-model-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices

Houpis G, Rodríguez JM, Strobel C. Guideline for Conducting a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Study. Post Deliv Innov Digit Econ 2015;131–42.

National Data Laborator United States Department of Agriculture (NDL-USDA). The 2015 food & health survey: Consumer attitudes toward food safety, nutrition & health. 2015. Accessed: 2020 Nov 20. Available from: https://foodinsight.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/2015-Food-and-Health-Survey-FINAL.pdf

Hörnell A, Berg C, Forsum E, et al. Perspective: An extension of the STROBE statement for observational studies in nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): Explanation and elaboration. Adv Nutr 2017;8:652–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.117.015941

R-project. Package ‘samplesize’. 2016. Availabel from: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=samplesize

Department of Statistics Jordan [Internet]. Home page. 2020. Accessed: 2020 Jul 20. Available from: http://dosweb.dos.gov.jo/20

United Nations. Women and nutrition − Nutrition policy discussion paper No. 6. Available from: https://www.unscn.org/layout/modules/resources/files/Policy_paper_No_6.pdf

Ammouri AA, Neuberger G, Nashwan AJ, Al-Haj AM. Determinants of self-reported physical activity among Jordanian adults: Clinical scholarship. J Nurs Scholarsh 2007;39:342–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00191.x

Al-sheyab N, Alomari M, Hayajneh A, Shah S. Attitudes and perceived barriers toward healthy lifestyle behaviors in Jordanian adolescents: a developing country perspective. Adolesc Health Med Ther 2019;10:39–47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S181001

World Bank. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan – Understanding how gender norms in MNA impact female employment outcomes. 2018;1–18. Available from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/859411541448063088/Hashemite-Kingdom-of-Jordan-Understanding-How-Gender-Norms-in-MNA-Impact-Female-Employment-Outcomes

World Health Organization. Eastern Mediterranean Health Observatory. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. 2021. Available from: https://rho.emro.who.int/ThemeViz/TermID/146

High Health Council. The National Strategy for Health Sector in Jordan 2015- 2019. Hashemite Kingdom Jordan. 2015. Available from: https://jordankmportal.com/system/resources/attachments/000/000/311/original/Jordan_National_Health_Sector_Strategy_2015-2019_.pdf?1455799625

Margetts BM, Martinez JA, Saba A, et al. Definitions of “healthy” eating: A pan-EU survey of consumer attitudes to food, nutrition and health. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:S23-9.

Hamelin AM, Lamontagne C, Ouellet D, et al. Healthful eating: Beyond food, a global concept. Can J Diet Pract Res 2010;71:e21-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3148/71.2.2010.98

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Healthy Eating Index (HEI). 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 22]. Available from: https://www.fns.usda.gov/resource/healthy-eating-index-hei

Plasek B, Lakner Z, Temesi Á. Factors that influence the perceived healthiness of food - Review. Nutrients 2020;12:1–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010069

Alshurideh MT. Do we care about what we buy or eat? A Practical study of the healthy foods eaten by Jordanian youth. Int J Bus Manag 2014;9:65–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n4p65

Obeisat S, Gharaibeh H. Physical activity behaviour of Jordanian adolescents and its associated factors. Eur J Sci Res 2012;67:433–43.

Hamdan KM, Shaheen AM. Determinants of physical activity among Jordanian University Students. Res Heal Sci 2019;4:191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/rhs.v4n3p191

World Health Organization. The National Strategy and Plan of Action against Diabetes, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Obesity in Jordan. 2015.

Clark JE. Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: Comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18-65 years old) who are overfat, or obese; systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2015;14:31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0204-8

Ellie Whitney, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition 12th ed. Williams P, Rose N, Feldman E, et al., editors. Vol. 47. Woods Worth, Cengage learning; 2015.

Slavin J. Dietary guidelines: Are we on the right path? Nutr Today 2012;47:245-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0b013e31826c50af

Ministry of Health. Jordanian Dietary Guidelines. Amman; 2021.

Tayyem RF, Al-Shudifat AE, Johannessen A, et al. Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease among Jordanians: A case–control study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018;28:262–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2017.10.026

Altarawneh M. Consumer awareness towards organic food: A pilot study in Jordan. J Agric Food Technol 2013;3:14–8.

Eneizan BM. Critical obstacles to adopt the organic farming in Jordan: From marketing perspective. Eur J Bus Manag 2017;3:38-43.

Zhou M, Lemaire R, Hedrick V, et al. Nutrients effects of menu labeling policies on transnational restaurant chains to promote a healthy diet : A scoping review to inform policy and research. Nutrients 2020;12:1544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061544

Mills S, Brown H, Wrieden W, et al. Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2017;14:1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0567-y

Government of Jordan. Jordan Economic Growth Plan 2018-2022. Executive Summary 2018; Available from: http://egp.jo/ar

Oscarsson M, Carlbring P, Andersson G, Rozental A. A large-scale experiment on New Year’s resolutions: Approach-oriented goals are more successful than avoidance-oriented goals. PLoS One 2020;15:1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234097

Jordan Food and Drug Administration. Jordanian Food Law. Jordan Food and Drug Administration; 2015.

Published
2021-07-16
Info
Issue
Section
Original Articles
Keywords:
Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, nutrition, diet
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 133

  • PDF: 46
  • Supplementary: 9
How to Cite
Alhaj, O., Al-Sayyed, H. F., AlRasheed, M. M., & Jahrami, H. (2021). Appraisal survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Jordanian society toward diet and nutrition during COVID-19 era. Journal of Public Health Research. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2381