Polychlorinated biphenyls in residential soils and their health risk and hazard in an industrial city in India
AbstractBackground. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic health effects.
Design and Methods. Residential soil from Korba, India, was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction procedure, cleaned on modified silica and quantified for PCBs. Soil ingestion was considered as the main exposure pathways of life-long intake of PCBs. Human health risk in terms of life time average daily dose, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated using established guidelines.
Results. The estimated average ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10−8 and 1.1×10−7, respectively. ILCR from dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10−6 and 1.1×10−5, respectively. The HQ for PCBs was 6.3×10−4 and 2.2×10−3, respectively for human adults and children. Study observed that ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs was lower than acceptable guideline range of 10−6-10−4, and ILCR from dioxin like PCBs was within the limit. HQ was lower than safe limit of 1.
Conclusions. Study concluded that human population residing in Korba had low health risk due to PCBs in residential soils.
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Copyright (c) 2014 Bhupander Kumar, Virendra Kumar Verma, Satish Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Chandra Shekhar Sharma, Avinash B. Akolkar
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