Journal of Public Health Research <p><strong>The Journal of Public Health Research</strong> is an online Open Access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the field of public health science. The aim of the journal is to stimulate debate and dissemination of knowledge in the public health field in order to improve efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of public health interventions to improve health outcomes of populations. This aim can only be achieved by adopting a global and multidisciplinary approach. <br><br> <strong>The Journal of Public Health Research </strong>publishes contributions from both the 'traditional' disciplines of public health, including hygiene, epidemiology, health education, environmental health, occupational health, health policy, hospital management, health economics, law and ethics as well as from the area of new health care fields including social science, communication science, eHealth and mHealth philosophy, health technology assessment, genetics research implications, population-mental health, gender and disparity issues, global and migration-related themes. In support of this approach, the Journal of Public Health Research strongly encourages the use of real multidisciplinary approaches and analyses in the manuscripts submitted to the journal. In addition to <em>Original research</em>, <em>Systematic Review,</em> <em>Meta-analysis</em>, <em>Meta-synthesis</em> and <em>Perspectives</em> and <em>Debate</em> articles, the Journal of Public Health Research publishes newsworthy <em>Brief</em> <em>Reports</em>, <em>Letters</em> and <em>Study Protocols</em> related to public health and public health management activities.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Journal of Public Health Research 2279-9028 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Challenges of migration and culture in a public health communication context <p>Not available</p> Rukhsana Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 10.4081/jphr.2018.1508 Predicting the outcome of occupational accidents by CART and CHAID methods at a steel factory in Iran <p><em>Background</em>: A large number of occupational accidents happen at steel industries in Iran. The information about these accidents is recorded by safety offices. Data mining methods are one of the suitable ways for using these databases to create useful information. Classification and regression trees (CART) and chisquare automatic interaction detection (CHAID) are two types of a decision tree which are used in data mining for creating predictions. These predictions could show characteristics of susceptible people exposed to occupational accidents. This study was aimed to predict the outcome of occupational accidents by CART and CHAID methods at a steel factory in Iran. <br><em>Design and methods:</em> In this study, the data of 12 variables for 2127 cases of occupational injuries (including three categories of minor, severe and fatal) from 2001 to 2014 were collected. CART and CHAID algorithms in IBM SPSS Modeler version 18 were used to create decision trees and predictions. <br><em>Results:</em> Five predictions for the outcome of occupational accidents were created for each method. The most important predictor variables for CART method included age, the cause of accident and level of education respectively. For CHAID method, age, place of accident and level of education were the most important predictor variables respectively. Furthermore the accuracy of CART and CHAID methods were 81.78% and 80.73%, respectively for predictions. <br><em>Conclusions:</em> CART and CHAID methods can be used to predict the outcome of occupational accidents in the steel industry. Thus the rate of injuries can be reduced by using the predictions for employing preventive measures and training in the steel industry.</p> Gholam Abbas Shirali Moloud Valipour Noroozi Amal Saki Malehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 10.4081/jphr.2018.1361 A multidisciplinary approach to health campaign effectiveness <p>Campaign costs are rising, making ad execution testing more critical to determine effectiveness prior to media spending. Premarket testing occurs prior to messages’ airing while in-market testing examines message attributes when messages are aired within a real-world setting, where context plays an important role in determining audience response. These types of ad testing provide critical feedback to help develop and deploy campaigns. Due to recent changes in media delivery platforms and audience tobacco use behavior, this study analyzes two nationally representative youth samples, aged 15-21, to examine if pre-market ad testing is an indicator of in-market ad performance for public health campaigns, which rely on persuasive messages to promote or reduce health behaviors rather than selling a product. Using data from the truth® campaign, a national tobacco use prevention campaign targeted to youth and young adults, findings indicate strong associations between pre-market scores and in-market ad performance metrics.</p> Jessica M. Rath Marisa Greenberg Ollie Ganz Lindsay Pitzer Elizabeth Hair Haijun Xiao Jennifer Cantrell Donna Vallone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-04 2018-10-04 10.4081/jphr.2018.1379 Screening for the risk on long-term sickness absence <p><em>Background</em>: Long-term sickness absence is a growing concern in Belgium and other European countries. Since 2017, Belgian physicians of the sickness funding organisations are required to assess the re-integration possibilities within the first two months of sickness absence. Given the shortage of physicians in the assessment of work disability and the growing number of people in sickness absence, there is a need for a triage tool, allowing to assign return-to work support to patients having a high-risk profile not to resume work. <br><em>Methods/design:</em> The current study comprises a comprehensive validation process of a screening tool that supports Belgian physicians in guiding people back to work. The study consists of a theoretical construct validation (face validity and content validity), and an empirical construct validation (concurrence validity, factorial validity, predictive validity, hypothesis testing validity and known- group validity). <br><em>Expected impact of the study for Public Health:</em> The screening instrument assessing the risk for long-term sickness absence is a tool developed to support physicians who work for sickness funds and for occupational health and safety organisations. Both professionals play an important role in the return to work process and the prevention of long-term sickness absence. The screening tool aims at making a distinction between people who will resume their work independently and people who will need support to do so. Generation of this prediction model will help physicians to focus effort and resources in the high-risk group. Results may also help understand the relationship between the biopsychosocial model and long-term sick-leave.</p> Kaat Goorts Sofie Vandenbroeck Dorina Rusu Marc Du Bois Lode Godderis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-04 2018-10-04 10.4081/jphr.2018.1419 With whom are you dealing? Using social network analysis as a tool to strengthen service delivery structures for low socioeconomic status populations <p><em>Background:</em> Health disparities between populations with different socioeconomic status (SES) are increasing. Although a wide variety of support service organizations and arrangements are in place, no general overview of this social network, its reach, and harmonization of services surrounding low-SES populations are available. The present participatory health research study examined the current network structure and the utility of using social network analysis (SNA) as a tool to improve service delivery structures. <br><em>Design and methods</em>: We applied a mixed-methods study design. An online-questionnaire was used to examine the relationships among organizations assumed to support low-SES individuals in the municipality of Vaals, the Netherlands. In addition, semi-structured interviews and a networking session were used to examine the current network structure and to explore opportunities for improvement. <br><em>Results:</em> The SNA revealed a weak network structure, and all interviewed professionals mentioned that the current structure should be improved. Participants indicated that a first step would be to install a central information system. <br><em>Conclusions:</em> SNA can be a useful tool to gain more in-depth insights into the relations within a service delivery network. The professionals were assisted in discovering new organizations that could help them reach low SES populations and in harmonizing and improving their service delivery.</p> Lotte Prevo Liesbeth Mercken Maria Jansen Stef Kremers ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-04 2018-10-04 10.4081/jphr.2018.1369 SHARE: a data set for ageing research <p>not available</p> Guglielmo Weber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 10.4081/jphr.2018.1397 Framing and visual type: Effect on future Zika vaccine uptake intent <p><em>Introduction</em>: The Zika virus is associated with the birth defect microcephaly, and while a vaccine was not available in early- 2017, several were under development. This study’s purpose was to identify effective communication strategies to promote uptake of a new vaccine, particularly among women of reproductive age.<br><em>Design and methods</em>: In order to study the effects of Zika message framing (gain vs. loss) and visual type (photo vs. infographic) on future Zika vaccine uptake intent, a 2×2 between-subjects experiment was performed via an online survey in 2017 among 339 U.S. women of reproductive age (18-49 years). Participants were exposed to one of four messages, all resembling Instagram posts: gain-framed vs. loss-framed infographic, and gain-framed vs. loss-framed photo. These messages were followed by questions about Zika vaccine uptake intent as well as intermediate psychosocial variables that could lead to intent. <br><em>Results</em>: There was no interaction between framing and visual type (P=0.116), and there was no effect for framing (P=0.185) or visual type (P=0.724) on future Zika vaccine uptake intent, which is likely indicative of insufficient dosage of the intervention. However, when focusing on intermediate psychosocial constructs that are known to influence behavior and intent, gain-framed messages were more effective in increasing subjective norms (P=0.005) as related to a future Zika vaccine, as well as perceived benefits (P=0.016) and self-efficacy (P=0.032). <br><em>Conclusions:</em> Gain-framed messages seem to be more effective than loss-framed messages to increase several constructs that could, in turn, affect future Zika vaccine uptake intent. This is a novel finding since, traditionally, loss-framed messages are considered more beneficial in promoting vaccine-related health behaviors.</p> Jeanine P.D. Guidry Kellie E. Carlyle Jessica G. LaRose Paul Perrin Mark Ryan Marcus Messner Jay Adams ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 10.4081/jphr.2018.1162 Effectiveness of a multicomponent school based intervention to reduce bullying among adolescents in Chandigarh, North India: A quasi-experimental study protocol <p><em>Background</em>: Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with significant academic, psychosocial and health related problems among adolescents. There is a need to develop effective interventions to prevent bullying among adolescents, especially in low and middle income countries. This paper presents the study protocol to develop, and evaluate the effect of multi-component school based prevention program for bullying in India. <br><em>Design</em>: Quasi-experimental study. <br><em>Methods</em>: The study will be conducted among 846 students of grade 7th and 8th in the intervention and control schools in Chandigarh, Union Territory, North India. A government and a private school will be selected purposively in each of the intervention and control arm. The intervention is based on socio-ecological model, and will be administered at individual, relationship (parents and teachers) and school level. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of students experiencing any kind of bullying (bullying, victimization, or both), in each study arm. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by performing difference in difference analysis and generalized estimating equations. <br><em>Expected impact for public health</em>: Bullying is an aggressive behaviour with significant morbidities, including psychological or physical trauma, affecting individuals not only in their adolescence, but also later in their adulthood. This quasi-experimental study is expected to provide evidence on whether multi-component bullying prevention intervention program, can reduce the burden of bullying perpetration and victimization among school adolescents in India. The results of the study will add in the exiting literature on bullying intervention program, especially, from the low middle-income countries, as there are limited studies available on this topic in these countries.</p> Monica Rana Madhu Gupta Prahbhjot Malhi Sandeep Grover Manmeet Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 10.4081/jphr.2018.1304 Racial/ethnic differences in health insurance adequacy and consistency among children: Evidence from the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health <p><em>Background</em>: Surveillance of disparities in healthcare insurance, services and quality of care among children are critical for properly serving the medical/healthcare needs of underserved populations. The purpose of this study was to assess racial/ethnic differences in children’s (0 to 17 years old) health insurance adequacy and consistency (child has insurance coverage for the last 12 months). <br><em>Design and methods</em>: We used data from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (n=79,474). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the distribution and influence of several sociodemographic/family related factors on insurance adequacy and consistency across different racial/ethnic groups. <br><em>Results</em>: Stratified analyses by race/ethnicity revealed that white and black children living in households at or below 299% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) were approximately 29 to 42% less likely to have adequate insurance compared to children living in families of higher income levels. Regardless of race/ethnicity, we found that children with public health insurance were more likely to have adequate insurance than their privately insured counterparts, while adolescents were at greater risk of inadequate coverage. Hispanic and black children were more likely to lack consistent insurance coverage. <br><em>Conclusions</em>: This study provides evidence that racial/ethnic differences in adequate and consistent health insurance exists with both white and minority children being affected adversely by poverty. Establishing outreach programs for low income families, and cross-cultural education for healthcare providers may help increase health insurance adequacy and consistency within certain underserved populations.</p> Tulay G. Soylu Eman Elashkar Fatemah Aloudah Munir Ahmed Panagiota Kitsantas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-23 2018-04-23 10.4081/jphr.2018.1280 Lack of school requirements and clinician recommendations for human papillomavirus vaccination <p><em>Background</em>: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians’ recommendations. <br><em>Design and Methods:</em> Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA. Data were analysed using an iterative thematic approach in 2016-2017. <br><em>Results</em>: Many clinicians described presenting HPV vaccination as optional or non-urgent because it is not required for school entry. This was noted to be different from how other required vaccines were discussed. Even strong recommendations were often qualified by statements about the lack of requirements. Furthermore, lack of requirements was often raised initially by clinicians and not by parents. Many clinicians agreed that requirements would simplify the recommendation, but that parents may not agree with requirements. Personal opinions about school entry requirements were mixed. <br><em>Conclusions</em>: The current lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination is an important influence on clinicians’ recommendations that are often framed as optional or non-urgent. Efforts are needed to strengthen the quality of clinicians’ recommendations in a way that remains strong and focused on disease prevention yet uncoupled from the lack of requirements that may encourage delays. Additionally, greater support for requirements among clinicians may be needed to successfully enact requirements in the future.</p> Linda M. Niccolai Anna L. North Alison Footman Caitlin E. Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-23 2018-04-23 10.4081/jphr.2018.1324